AQUALOGIC is the best supplier of drinking water for modern business. The bottleless water dispensers offered by our company are healthy and cost-effective source of water for offices and hotels. In the section „News” we place the information concerning the market of dispensers equipped with P.O.U. filters. There are also some articles explaining the properties of Bisphenol A harmful to human body. We encourage you to get familiar with the articles and to discover the purifying energy hidden in the water running from the bottleless dispensers.
ARE PEOPLE EXPOSED TO BPA?
Odpowiedź na postawione w tytule pytanie jest prosta i jednoznaczna – tak, ludzie są narażenie na ekspozycję na BPA. Do skażenia BPA może dojść za pośrednictwem wody, powietrza i poprzez kontakt. Jednakże, to BPA zawarty w pokarmie i w napojach stanowi zdecydowaną większość tego związku, na która jesteśmy narażeni. BPA dostaje się do pokarmu i napojów z plastikowych (choć nie tylko) opakowań. Do pojemników zawierających BPA należą pojemniki pokryte żywicą epoksydową lub opakowania wykonane z plastików poliwęglanowych jak np.: plastikowe butelki dla dzieci, plastikowa zastawa stołowa, pojemniki na żywność i baniaki na wodę . Co istotne, poziom skażenia produktu przez BPA pochodzący z jego opakowania zależy w większym stopniu od temperatury niż od czasu przechowywania (skażenie wzrasta wraz ze wzrostem temperatury). Ma to szczególne znaczenie w dobie wykorzystywania kuchenek mikrofalowych do podgrzewania produktów żywnościowych i napojów w plastikowych opakowaniach.
Krótkotrwała ekspozycja na BPA jest możliwa również podczas aplikacji niektórych materiałów dentystycznych (zawierających bis-DMA – dimetyloakrylat bisfenolu A). Ponadto niewielką ilość BPA stwierdzono również w papierowych i kartonowych opakowaniach żywności. Na skażenie narażenie są również pracownicy pracujący w zakładach produkujących lub wykorzystujących BPA. Należą do nich przede wszystkim pracownicy zakładów produkujących plastiki poliwęglanowe i poliwinylowe, papier termiczny, farby i lakiery oparte na żywicach epoksydowych oraz tetrabromowe związki odporne na ogień.
Oceny ekspozycji ludzi na BPA dokonuje się na dwa sposoby. Po pierwsze za pomocą biomonitoringu – oznaczając stężenie BPA w ludzkich płynach ustrojowych, takich krew, mocz, mleko i inne. Po drugie poprzez kalkulacje dziennej dawki BPA, na którą jest człowiek narażony – sumując zawartość BPA w spożywanych produktach. Preferowaną metodą oceny ekspozycji na BPA jest biomonitoring.
Analizując zawartość BPA w ludzkim moczu stwierdzono, że występował on u 93% badanych (badaniem nie objęto dzieci poniżej 6 roku życia). Co bardzo istotne stężenie BPA w moczu na przestrzeni dwóch dekad zwiększyło się ponad trzykrotnie (porównywano badania przeprowadzone w latach 1988-1994 do badań z lat 2003-2004). Ponieważ BPA nie kumuluje się w organizmie, wzrost jego stężenia w płynach ustrojowych może być związany jedynie ze zwiększoną ekspozycją na ten związek.
Analizując dane uzyskane metodą biomonitoringu stwierdzono, że największe spożycie BPA dotyczy dzieci i niemowląt. Należy dodać, że podobne obserwacje dotyczą także innych zanieczyszczeń. Wynika to z faktu, że ta grupa wiekowa wyróżnia się największym spożyciem pokarmu, płynu i powietrza w przeliczeniu na kilogram masy ciała. Ponadto małe dzieci wykazują zachowania obce dorosłym, które mogą potencjalnie zwiększać ekspozycje na różne substancje. Należą tutaj przede wszystkim zabawy na podłodze, z towarzyszącym kładzeniem różnych przedmiotów (w tym plastikowych) do ust oraz połykaniem kurzu i brudu.
W wykonanych w Stanach Zjednoczonych badaniach potwierdzono obecność BPA we krwi kobiet ciężarnych, w wodach płodowych, w łożysku (za pomocą łożyska zarodek otrzymuje z krwi matki pokarm i tlen, a oddaje dwutlenek węgla oraz zbędne produkty przemiany materii) i w krwi pępowinowej. Wskazuje to na możliwość narażenia płodu na skażenie BPA.
Aby dobrze ocenić ryzyko skażenia BPA należy zrozumieć jakim przemianom ulega ten związek w organizmie. W krótkim czasie po połknięciu BPA jest wiązany z kwasem glukuronowym. Sprawia to że staje się łatwiej rozpuszczalny w wodzie, a tym samym łatwiej go wydalić z moczem i zminimalizować interakcje w żywym organizmie. W mniejszym stopniu BPA ulega przemianie do siarczanu BPA. We krwi można oznaczyć: glukuronian, siarczan jak i niezwiązany BPA lecz tylko ten ostatni wykazuje aktywność biologiczną. Oznacza to, że metabolity (związki powstałe w wyniku przemian) BPA nie stwarzają zagrożenia. Badania na zwierzętach wykazały, że zarówno u noworodków jak i u płodów szybkość metabolizowania BPA jest istotnie mniejsza. Wielu badaczy uważa, że również u ludzi płody, noworodki i dzieci znacznie wolniej metabolizują BPA. Wolniejszy metabolizm BPA może być związany z mniejszą dojrzałością szlaków metabolicznych wątroby. Biorąc pod uwagę, że noworodki i niemowlęta charakteryzują się największą ekspozycją na BPA, a jednocześnie metabolizm (eliminacja) BPA jest u niech najwolniejszy – grupa ta wydaje się być najbardziej narażona na niekorzystne działanie tego związku.
ANNOUNCEMENT OF MPWIK S.A. ON DRINKING WATER QUALITY
In the announcement there are presented the results of several selected water quality indices for the period of last 2 weeks. Central Laboratory MPWiK S.A. in Cracow is currently carrying out testing of 140 physical and chemical, bacteriological and hydrobiological indices of raw water drawn in the water supply intakes, drinking water supplied to the network as well as water in that network. The remaining, not included in the table, physical and chemical and bacteriological parameters of drinking water supplied for the urban network of Cracow meet also the requirements included in the new regulation of Minister of Health of 29.03.2007 on quality of water intended for human consumption (Official Journal No. 61, item 417) and the new regulation of Minister of Health of 20 April 2010 changing the regulation on quality of water intended for human consumption (OJ 2010.72.466) as well as Directive of European Union no. 98/83/EEC of 3.11.1998 on quality of water intended for human consumption. Water is safe for human health if it is free from any pathogenic micro-organisms and parasites in numbers constituting danger to human health; and from any substances which, in numbers or concentrations, constitute a potential danger to human health and does not have any corrosive properties and meets microbiological, organoleptic, physical and chemical, as well as radiological requirements defined in the enclosures to the above-mentioned regulation. Since the water supplied to Cracow’s inhabitants meets (with ample reserve) Polish and European high quality requirements, we may acknowledge that the water is safe for human health, therefore it is „clean and healthy” – expressions which are accepted in the Directive no. 98/83/EEC for water meeting its criteria. The wide-scale inspection of National Audit Office conducted in all waterworks in Poland indicated that MPWiK S.A. in Cracow is one of 5 companies supplying water of the best quality. Although Cracow’s water has highly documented quality and it is “clean and healthy”, there are some customers’ complaints about its smell and taste. This type of complaints is the main part of all complaints directed to most water companies all over the world. It is a common perception that if water taste or smell raise concerns, the customers think that water is not safe. It is not true, however.
The sense of taste and smell is perceived by different receptors (in the mouth, throat and nasal cavity), yet when we eat and drink the taste and smell senses are received together. The volatile compounds go from the mouth to the sensitive nasal zone causing the smell sense. The receptors placed in the mouth collect also the senses being the combination of smell and taste. Non-organic ions contained in water do not smell (apart from ammonium ions and sulphides under certain conditions), but they influence on water taste. To have water taste neutrally causing positive feeling, the content of non-organic ions should match the content of those substances in the drinker’s saliva to which our taste receptors are accustomed. The significant differences in the content of these ions in consumed water and in saliva cause taste discomfort feeling while drinking such water, which has no relation to the quality of water. Man is a creature of habit, therefore the water quality improvement by decreasing the content of different chemical compounds is frequently received by the consumers as taste deterioration, when it deviates from so-far habits.
Among the metal ions that may be present in drinking water, some of them cause taste deterioration. One of them is iron whose maximal admissible concentration is 0,2 mg/dm3, but already at the content of 0,05 mg/dm3 the taste deterioration occurs. Also, some of organic compounds which occur in water in ultra-low concentrations, and which have no negative influence on health, may cause a feeling of worse taste and smell of water. For example, organic compound 2,3,6-trichloroanisole has noticeable odour at the concentration of 0,1 ng/dm3 (0,0000000001 g in 1 litre). Even the high-tech measuring instruments do not have such limit of detection, and low concentrations causing water smell deterioration are completely harmless for health. There are countless similar examples. The frequent complaints of water consumers are connected with noticeable chlorine smell. That smell, however, may be easily removed from the water by its boiling, and its presence guarantees full bacteriological safety as well as it proves that the flow time in water lines from the water treatment plant to a customer (water retention time) is not too long, which eliminates the phenomenon of water secondary pollution. Chlorine itself or chlorine dioxide in the doses used for disinfection purposes is not harmful to health.
DO YOU KNOW THAT…
The father of medicine – Hippocrates – already over 2000 years ago recommended everybody to drink as much water as possible.
Water is „matrix of life”, as a Nobel laureate Szent Gyorgi said – there are no living organisms able to function without even a drop of water. Without water a human being may survive in moderate climate 7 days, whereas with no food over 2 months. Water loss reaching 3% of body mass causes decreasing in physical capacity by 20%. At water loss reaching 20-22% of body mass the organism’s death happens. You should not keep PET bottle with water in direct sunshine because under the influence of solar rays the change in product taste may occur. A lot of factors are significant to maintain the proper quality of water. It should be stored in dry cool and shadowy place. Water from unscrewed bottle should be drunk possibly quickly from the time of its opening. After opening the bottle, water will keep its properties for several hours. You should not drink water directly from the bottle because it may lead to microbiological contamination.
If we want to use bottled water for boiling beverages and food, we should choose water with lower content of calcium (ca. 50mg/dm3) and magnesium (below 30mg), to avoid precipitating deposits of these elements during boiling. Water shelf life is given on the container but its quality depends on the fact whether water is stored in the recommended conditions, i.e. not in the sunlight and at temperature below 20°C. Natural mineral water is the water distinguishing with stable and very diversified mineral composition having the effect on physiological processes in human body. Natural spring water is generally characterised with lower content of minerals, hence it may be used in everyday diet by all people regardless of their age or disease burden. Table water is water received from mixture of waters with different mineralisation. Table water is also the water to which mineral salts, containing one or more constituents having physiological impact such as: sodium, magnesium, calcium, sulphates, hydrogen carbonates, are added
During heats or physical work under uncomfortable thermal conditions, it is advisable to drink natural mineral water that is medium- or high mineralised, with significant content of sodium chlorides as well as magnesium and calcium chlorides and/or hydrogen carbonates. For people with arterial hypertension and those prone to oedemas, it is recommended to drink water with low content of sodium (below 20 mg/dm3). For preparing beverages and food supplements for babies and small children, only low-mineralised water with low content of sodium, sulphates and chlorides (below 20 mg/dm3) is suitable. To supplement mineral deficiencies, it is helpful to drink water containing the deficit elements (calcium, magnesium, fluorides, iodides, iron (II)) in significant concentrations indicated with special mark on the label. The expected effects of applying these waters may be noticed, however, only after regular consuming such water in the volume ca. 1 litre per day. People with gastric troubles such as ulceration or hyperacidity should not drink water highly saturated with carbon dioxide, especially in a single bigger dose. Instead, they should drink alkaline water containing sodium hydrogen carbonates more than 1200mg/dm3 systematically for longer time (3 times a day). Both natural mineral water and natural spring water are food products with quality safe and beneficial for health. Drinking such water according to the recommendations given, similarly to rational nutrition is conducive to maintaining health and keeping fit.
There are individual predispositions in the body fluids content. This content is smaller at women than at men with the same body mass. It is also smaller at obese people. The volume of water is slightly less at women than at men, because female body contains more fat tissue. Human body at the moment of birth comprises 75% of water, and this percentage decreases together with the age. Adult person’s body comprises 60% of water. Water is present in all human organs in very different proportions. The biggest part is in blood – 83%, in kidneys – 82,7% in heart and lungs – 79% each. Water is also major building material for brain (74,5%). Even such organs as bones contain water which is 22% of their mass. The least amount of water in our organism is in fat tissue – only 10%. Human body loses water through skin (600 ml/24 hours), lungs (400 ml/24 hours), alimentary tract together with faeces (100ml/24 hours) and through kidneys (500 ml/24 hours). Water shortage in the body is reflected not only in chronic tiredness, insomnia, problems with concentration, memory disorders, headaches and skin dryness, but also in troubles with digestion and heart. Chronic water deficiency in the body may lead to nephrolithiasis and permanent osteoarthritis. The source of water for our body, apart from drunk beverages which cover 62% of daily demand for water, may be also from solid food. Fruit and vegetables are the second greatest source of water for the organism providing about 18% of daily water consumption. The source of water can be also bread and cereal products delivering ca. 8% of water, and even meat and its processed products (ca. 2%). Water in our bodies may come from several sources: from all kinds of drunk fluids and eaten food; it is formed also as a result of metabolic changes in proteins, fats and carbohydrates (metabolic water). Water should be drunk regularly before we are thirsty.
The best is to drink ca. 8 glasses a day. It should be taken with small sips in little quantities, 10 minutes before or after eating (drinking during meal may dilute gastric juices). The proper amount of water in a diet is also much bigger chance for maintaining beautiful silhouette and possibility of counteracting the overweight, provided that we drink water and not sugar sweetened beverages. It is possible, because drinking water reduces hunger feeling and therefore facilitates the control over the amount of consumed food. Grey, scaly and dull skin (so-called sheep-skin) is a symptom of insufficient supply of water. In such case, neither creams nor face-masks will help – we must drink water. The proper water supply is favourable for complexion because thanks to it the metabolic products, whose deposition is very harmful, are removed from the body.
To keep proper quality of water, many factors are important. It should be stored in dry cool and shadowy place. Water from unscrewed bottle should be drunk possibly quickly from the time of its opening. After opening the bottle, water will keep its properties for several hours. You should not drink water directly from the bottle because it may lead to microbiological contamination. WATER FROM AQUALOGIC DISPENSERS IS PROPERLY STORED, with no access to light and air, at proper temperature 5-12°C – hence it maintains freshness and good taste all the time.
WHAT DO WE BUY TOGETHER WITH BOTTLE OF WATER?
While buying a bottle of water, we pay for work of very well-paid market analysts, PR, advertisement, paper, plastic, prints, logistic services and fuel. It is surprising that sale of all this is possible since we have water available at our fingertips – all you need is open the tap. As psychological experiments showed, people do not choose products in a rational way, they want to believe, however, that they do. One of the basic functions of bottled water commercials is to give people the rational reason for their purchase.
WATER AS A PRODUCT
We have only general concept what the water should be. Our knowledge is usually nothing but generalities – water must be clean, cold and contain some minerals. In commercial spots that information is strengthened with suggestive visual messages: water cleanness must be testified by photos of mountainous streams, a man in white apron is talking about content of minerals and beneficial influence on our body shape is illustrated by a slim young woman. It gave us a belief that we drink all the best from a bottle and for sure “tap water” has not circulated for thousands years among Beskid rocks and what it contains is at most a horrible stone. That this stone is exactly the composition of minerals is rather unspoken. Producers of bottled water themselves often get lost in their own argumentation. Some of them can simultaneously emphasize that their water is taken from the area “clean ecologically” and it comes from layers perfectly isolated from the surroundings.
Water is a quite homogeneous product, the products from the most popular companies are almost identical, in addition they do not differ much from tap water. Customers having contact with similar products are inclined to changing frequently their preferences. As a result the advertising campaigns put pressure on creating unique individual features of particular waters and connection of their purchase with desirable life style. The crucial is also the continuity of the commercial effect in order to keep a customer with one brand.
„To enjoy every day and to keep fit you should take care of proper hydration. Nałęczowianka contains optimal composition of 7 minerals. It is ideal for proper hydration which supports the function of brain and body. Prepare yourself for a good day”.
We know exactly that commercials are closer to fiction and we seem to be beyond their influence area. The surveys showed that the aware receivers treating the advertising message more critically have less tendency to choose products directly after watching their commercials. After some time, however, they forget about the origin of memorised positive information on the products and they choose the advertised ones*.
In the advertising clip a product usually bonds some of unconnected messages going around health, family, beauty and success. There is not much substantive meaning in it, instead the suitably connected vague messages dominate and they invoke our dreams, aspirations and fears. Simultaneous effect of vision and verbal message allows a receiver to connect facts and deduce indirectly expressed information in an exact way the commercial creator wants.
GENDER OF A PRODUCT
As women more often deal with providing homes with food products, the campaigns – especially of so-called leading brands from medium segment –underline particularly the product adjustment to women’s needs. The connection between maintaining health, attractive body shape or professional success achievement with drinking bottled water of defined brand is suggested. The success is often illustrated with a happy family living in a prettily furnished flat or is embodied by an elegant woman strolling charmingly in the centre of a big city. The company „Polskie Zdroje” once employed Monika Bellucci for the advertisement of Cisowianka, and Cindy Crawford promoted the water Arctic.
The commercial campaign of Lithuanian water Vitotas may be considered as unusual one, because it was directed to young people, especially young men. Apparently, they thought that this group does not identify directly with the values exploited in conventional advertisements.
PLASTIC BOTTLES AND ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION LAW
EU Food Safety Agency (EFSA) imposed on the producers of bottled water the ban for placing on the package labels the statement: „its regular use in significant quantities may contribute to reducing the risk of dehydration and its related effects”. Specialists from the European Agency – alarmed by German scientists – concluded that such information may suggest that exactly the particular water has special properties protecting against dehydration. Such statement placed on the package label is offensive, in the emitted spots, however, it is common to make suggestions which go much more further.
Curiously enough, Art. 78 of Environment Protection Act says that mass media are obliged to create the society’s positive relation towards the environment protection and to make popular the principles of this protection in publication and broadcasts. The next article states that the advertisement or any other type of product or service promotion should not contain any content propagating the consumption model which is contrary to environment protection rules and sustainable development, and in particular, should not use the image of wild nature for promoting the products or services having negative impact on the environment. In the context of these records and of until recently non-existing, and at present fledgling selective waste collection, the continuous promotion of water sold in PET bottles, decomposing for hundreds years, whose production and transport have already taken lots of precious energy and contributed to emission of pollutions and to climatic changes, is at least incomprehensible. Some cities officially promoted their tap water as an alternative to bottled water which generates overwhelming number of troublesome wastes. Meanwhile, in Polish media there is still careless promotion of products bringing a great amount of money to water producers.
Air pollution, consumption of water resources and growing mountains of rubbish remain our mutual ecological and social problem, and their consequences and cost are distributed on all people. Recently the world got to know that San Francisco prohibited the sale of water in plastic bottles in public places. Some people realise that by today’s quality of tap water, the bottles are pointless and blue plastic is not so beautiful any more.